Romulo Gallegos University
San Juan de Los Morros, Guarico, Venezuela
October 18 - 23 1999



Diseases caused by hemoparasites are broadly distributed in the Americas, as well as their vectors, causing negative effects in the health of the animal flocks and on the production and productivity of the livestock production systems stablished in the different regions of the continent. The human Trypanosomiasis (Chagas Disease) also causes important problems of health in the American human population.

Within the range of Hemoparasites and their vectors described in the continent we have extracellular species belonging to the GenusTrypanosoma (T. vivax, T. evansi, T. theileri, among other, in animals) and T. cruzi, T. rangeli, in human, and intracellular species like Anaplasma spp., of the Genus Babesia (B. bigemina, B. bovis, B. argentine, B. caballi, B. equi) in animals and of the Genus Ehrlichia spp. (E. canis, E. platys) as much in animals as in human.

There is also a wide distribution of vectorial species within insects (Tabanids, Stomoxyds, Hipelatids, Triatomines, etc.), arthropods (Ticks, Acari, etc.), and the possibility of mechanical transmission among humans when applying treatments, as well as a great diversity of animal reservoir species of these hemoparasites. This demostrates the true importance of these parasitic diseases for the high diversity of parasitic species and their vectors, and for their extensive zoogreographic distribution, in a region of the world with enormous and varied cattle resources. This region has not only traditional domestic species, but also autochthonous ones as the South American camelids used for obtaining food (meat, milk) and other by-products (wool, leather) contributing to improve the quality of the habitants of the rural and mountainous areas of the life in the countries where they exist.

On the other hand, the ecosystems where the livestock animals of economics interest are raised in America, and overalls in Latin America, vary largely principally in the humid tropical regions with high annual pluvial precipitation, and of dry tropics with lingering times of drought, although also exist important areas of cold climate as the Andean regions (Cadenas de Los Andes). In these ambiental conditions, the animal production are adversely affected by the variety of climates (excess of heat, cold), for the poor nutritious quality of the pastures and for the high incidence of the parasitosis, and particulalrly those caused by hemoparasites, as well as other diseases of bacterial and viral origin. So, it is not surprinsing that the production and productivity of the livestock production systems in Latin America, stay consistently low, and therefore, decreasing the availability of products and by-products of animal origin for the more and more numerous human population, as well as the rising revenues for concept of the production and market of those products.

Although we are close to a new millennium, we are not surprised to observe that the production indicators are similar to those reported by the FAO in 1985 where indicated that in Latin America existed 27%, 16% and 10% world´s  population of beaf cattle, milk and ovines. Anyway the meat production and milk of these animals did represent about 17.4%, 7.4% and 4.8%, respectively, of the world production. This indicate that the hemoparasitosis represent the third nosologic entity of economic importance in America, especially in the bovine livestock. It is the reason for the relevance of their study and the development of researches for their control, so one of the important aspects for it, is obtaining a good and effective diagnosis.

The justification and importance of this International Course for Graduate students have been briefly listed above, so it is addressed for researchers, veterinarians and professionals of other fields related to the animal production and public health, trying to update their knowledge on the current diagnostic techniques for the study of these hemoparasitic diseases.


To contribute to the scientific knowledge of the main hemoparasitosis affecting animals and humans in America.
To modernize the knowledge on the techniques applied for the diagnosis of the hemoparasitosis.
To develop habilities and skills in the handling of the different diagnostic techniques, as much for the medical part as for the researchers.
To know the epidemiology of the hemoparasitosis and their implication in the animal and public health.
To know the different control and prevention methods for these hemoparasitosis and for their application in a rational and effective way under the focus of integrated control.

ADDRESSED TO: Veterinarians, Biologists, Medicals, Researchers and Other Related Professionals.

LEVEL:  Graduate Degree, it grants 2 Unit-credit for students.

COST: $500 (complete Course: AM and PM Programme); $250 (only AM Programme) (the payment only can to do in their equivalent in Bolivars at the moment of the Registration at the Change of the Day or by bank deposit to Cuenta Corriente No. 467-161296-3 of Banco de Venezuela acredit to AGROUNERG. Please send the voucher by fax +58 46 313025 and +58 43 320087 or by email).


Alberto M. R. Dávila (DBBM, Fiocruz, Brazil)
Marc Desquesnes (CIRDES, Burkina Faso)
Philippe Truc (IRD. France)
Basil Ikede (UPEI, Canáda)
Celestine Njoku (ABU, Nigeria)
Alfredo Coronado (UCLA, Venezuela)
Espartaco Sandoval (CIAEY, FONAIAP, Venezuela)
Noris Roa (IIZ, FONAIAP, Venezuela)
Jesús Rommel Morales (ANACENT, Venezuela)
Roy Meléndez (UCLA, Venezuela)
Matilde Jiménez (CORPOSALUD, Venezuela)
Margarita Cobo (FA, UCV, Venezuela)
Omar Colmerares (URG, venezuela)
Emir Espinoza (FONAIAP, Venezuela)
Ninoska Donnaruma (URG, Venezuela)



Dr. Rita TAMASAUKAS, Animal Health Research and Services Laboratory (LABIPRESAN), Romulo Gallegos University, San Juan de los Morros, Venezuela.


Dr. Alberto M. R. DÁVILA, DBBM, Oswaldo Cruz Institute, FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.


Dr. César LABRADOR, URG, Venezuela
Dr. Rafael INFANTE, FCV-UCV, Venezuela
Dr. Ninoska DONARUMA, URG, Venezuela
Dr. José Gregorio SÁNCHEZ, URG, Venezuela
Dr. Edgar RAMOS, URG, Venezuela
Dr. Jorge NEEDER; URG, Venezuela
Dr. Alfredo CORONADO, UCLA, Barquisimeto, Venezuela.
TSU María Fernanda BARRIOS, URG, Venezuela
TSU Nahir PARADA, FUNDERG, Venezuela
TSU Marlen PÁEZ, URG, Venezuela
Dr. Espartaco SANDOVAL, San Felipe, Venezuela.
Dr. Noris ROA, IIZ-FONAIAP, Venezuela.
Ing. Agr. Aixa AGUIRRE, LABIPRESAN, URG, Venezuela.
Ing. Agr. Adrián GONZÁLEZ, LABIPRESAN, URG, Venezuela.
Ing. Agr. Rubén PURROY, LABIPRESAN URG, Venezuela.
Sect. Mildred RON DE MENDOZA, APUNELLARG, Venezuela
Br. Jesús RON, LABIPRESAN, URG, Venezuela.


Monday 18-10-99:

07.00 - 07.30 am..... Registrations and Coffee.
07.30 - 07.45 am..... Openning.
07.45 - 10.45 am..... Hemoparasitosis in America and in the World: Etiology and
                                 General Aspects: Trypanosoma spp. (T. vivax, T. evansi, T.
                                   theileri, T. cruzi, T. equiperdum); Anaplasma spp.; Babesia spp.;
                                   Ehrlichia spp. (E. canis, E. platys).

10.45 - 11.00 am......Coffee Break

11.00 - 01.30 pm.....Hemoparasite´s Biology in Animals and Human, and their
                                 * Dr. Lane Foil (Louisiana State University, USA): Biology of Bit
                                    ing Flies.

01.30 - 02.30 pm.........LUNCH

02.30 - 07.00 pm.....PRACTICES IN LABORATORY I.
Medical History, Take and Conservation of Blood Samples. Serum Separation and Conservation.
Basics Parasitological Techniques for Diagnosis of Exoglobular Parasites (Trypanosoma spp.) and Endoglobulars (Anaplasma spp., Babesia spp., Ehrlichia spp.)
Fresh smear, Thick Drop, Colored Smear, Tintion for Anaplasma marginale caudal appendix, Woo, Double Centrifugation, Buffy Coat Smears, QBC, Ganglionar Punction, Rachid Liquid, Impronts, Methods of Cultivation, Identification of Vectors, Isolation of Hemoparasites of the Vectors, Inoculation of Susceptible Animals (rodents, small and large ruminants), Estimation of the Parasitemia, etc.
                                 * Dr. Basil Ikede (University of Prince Edward Island, Canada):
                                    Overview of Microcopic Lesions in Animal Trypanosomoses.

Tuesday, 19-10-99:

07.30 - 07.45 am...... Coffee
07.45 - 10.45 am..... Hemoparasite Pathology in Animals and Humans.
                                 Relationship with the Reproduction Animal.
                                 * Dr. David Ogwu (FVM, Ahmadu Bello University, Nigeria):
                                    Effects of tryps Infection on Pregnant Bovine.
10.45 - 11.00 am....... Coffe Break
11.00 - 01.30 pm.....Pathogenesis, Phisio-pathology, Inmuno -Pathology, Clinical,
                                Diagnosis of Hemoparasites in Animals and Humans.
                                 * Dr. Marc Desquesnes (CIRDES; Burkina Faso): Cross Reactions
                                    in ELISA for Trypanosomes:  1. Antigen ELISA; 2. Indirect-
                                    ELISA. Observations on Cross Reactions (T. vivax, T. evansi, T.
                                    brucei, T. congolense, T. cruzi, T. equiperdum. T. theileri).
                                  * Dr. Basil Ikede (University of Prince Edward Island, Canada):
                                     Overview of Microscopic Lesions in Animal Trypanosomoses.
                                     Part II.
                                  * Dr. Rita Tamasaukas (URG, Venezuela): Variaciones de los Va-
                                     lores Hematológicos como Herramienta Diagnóstica en Hemopa-
                                     rasitosis Animal: Determinación y Análisis.
                                  * Dr. Gulnaz D. Ilgekbayeva (Kazakh Research Institute of Vete-
                                     rinary, Kazakhstan): New Method of Serological Diagnosis of
                                     Trypanosomosis (T. equiperdum) of Horses.

01.30 - 02.30 pm.......LUNCH

02.30 - 07.30 pm....PRACTICES IN LABORATORY II.
Clinical, Clinical-pathology, Phisio-pathology, Anatomo-pathology diagnosis, Pathology of Reproductive Organs.
Separation and Concentration of Trypanosomas for Columns of DEAE-cellulose by low Gradient of Percoll.
Fluorescent Coloration of Acridin Orange.
Capillar Agglutination.
Agglutination in Card (Card Test).
Agglutination in Latex.
Diffusion in Gel.
Fixation of the Complement.
Passive Hemagglutinación.
Scaning and Transmission Electronic Microscopy.
Criopreservation of Hemoparasites.

Wednesday, 20-10-99:

07.30 - 07.45 am.......Coffee
07.45 - 10.45 am......Immunology, Immunocitochemistry, Antigenic Variation.
                                 Hidden Antigens, etc.

10.45 - 11.00 am......Coffee Break

11.00 - 01.30 pm.....Cloning and Genetic Expression of Hemoparasites. Molecular
                                 Biology Techniques. Immunoenzimatic Assays. Isoenzymes.
                                 Radioimmuneassay. Etc.
                                 * Dr. Marc Desquesnes (CIRDES, Burkina Faso): Applications of
                                    Cross Reactions for Diagnosis with Heterologous Antigens: Diag-
                                    nosis of T. vivax with T. evansi Antigens in Ruminants; Diagno
                                    sis of T. cruzi with T. evansi Antigens in Humans.

01.30 - 02.30 pm........ LUNCH

02.30 - 07.30 pm.....PRACTICES IN LABORATORY III.
Indirect Immunofluorescence.
Electroforetic Analysis, Electrotransference and Immunotintion for Markers and Identification of Antigens.
Western Blot.
Production of Policlonal Antibodies.
Immunoglobulin Purification.
Determination of Class and Sub-class of Inmunoglobulins.
Thursday, 21-10-99:

07.30 - 07.45 am...... Coffee
07.45 - 10.45 am.........Special Techniques for the Diagnosis of  Hemoparasites. Mole
                              cular Markers.
                                Cloning, Expression and Purification of
                                Specific Proteins. Sequence. Identification
                                and Purification of Antigens. Cellular Antigens
                                Techniques for Soluble Antigens. Techniques for Hormonal
                                Determination (P4, Estradiol, etc.).
                                -Trypanosoma spp. (T. vivax, T. evansi, T.
                                  theileri, T. cruzi, T. equiperdum)
                                -Anaplasma spp.
                                -Babesia spp.
                                -Ehrlichia spp. (E. canis, E. platys).

Invited professors:

Dr. Andrés Soyano (IVIC, Venezuela) (Technical of Experimental Inmunology)
Dr. Alberto M. R. Dávila (DBBM, FIOCRUZ, Brazil) (T. vivax)
Dr. Alexis Mendoza (FC-UCV, Venezuela) (T. evansi)
Dr. Pedro Aso (USB, Venezuela) (Anaplasma spp.)
Dr. Edgar Leon (IIV-FONAIAP, Venezuela) (Babesia spp.)
Dr. Noris Roa A. (IIZ-FONAIAP, Venezuela) (Techniques for Hormonal Determination)
Dr. Edmundo Grisard (UFSC, Brazil) (Methods for specific discrimination among T. cruzi and T. rangeli)
10.45 - 11.00 am........ Coffee Break

11.00 - 01.30 pm......... Continuation of Special Techniques for
                                    Hemoparasites Diagnosis in Animals and Humans:
                                    Phenotypic Blastogenics Analysis Immune Cells.
                                    Citoimmunochemistry. Recombinant Proteins.
                                    Monoclonal and Policlonals Antibodies.
                                    Determination of the Affinity Constant.
                                    Axenics Cultures. Standarization and
                                    Validation of Diagnosis Techniques
                                    (Norms FDA, IAEA).

Invited Professors:

Dr. Alberto M. R. Dávila (DBBM, FIOCRUZ, Brazil) (T. vivax)
Dr. Servio Urdaneta (FC-UCV, Venezuela) (T. cruzi)
Dr. Salvador Giardina (USB, Venezuela) (Anaplasma spp.)
Dr. Ana Teresa Guillen (IIV-FONAIAP, Venezuela) (Babesia spp.)
Dr. Rita Tamasaukas (URG, Venezuela) (Standardization and Validation of Diagnosis Tecniques: Norms FDA, IAEA, etc.).

01.30 - 02.30 pm........ LUNCH

02.30 - 08.30 pm......PRACTICES IN LABORATORY IV.
Direct ELISA and Detection for Hemoparasites and Hormones (P4, etc.).
Production of Monoclonal Antibodies.
Purificación of Monoclonal Antibodies.
Determinación of Class and Sub-class of Antibodies.

Friday, 22-10-99:

07.30 - 07.45 am...... Coffee
07.45 - 10.45 am..... Epidemiology of the Hemoparasites and their Vectors.
                              Agroecology. Tolerance. Enzootic Stability and Inestability.
                              Population Dynamics of Hemoparasites and their Vectors.
                              Epidemic Indicators. Epidemic Reports.
                              -Trypanosoma spp. (T. vivax, T. evansi, T.
                               theileri, T. cruzi, T. equiperdum)
                              -Anaplasma spp.
                              -Babesia spp.
                              -Ehrlichia spp. (E. gipsy, E. platys).

Invited Professors:

Dr. Alberto M. R. Dávila (DBBM, FIOCRUZ, Brazil) (T. vivax)
Dr. Marc Desquesnes (CIRAD-EMVT, Burkina Faso): Epidemiological Confusion: Risks of Wrong Epidemiological Interpretation: T. cruzi/T. evansi/T. vivax/T. equiperdum.
Dr. Manuel Toro Benitez (FCV-UCV, Venezuela) (Anaplasma spp.)
Dr. Ana Teresa Guillen (IIV-FONAIAP, Venezuela) (Babesia spp.)
Dr. Marisol de Vera (Venezuela) (Ehrlichia spp.)
Dr. Elena Moissant (FCV-UCV, Venezuela) (Vectors. Insects).
Dr. Roy Melendez (UCLA, Venezuela) (Arachnids. Vectors)
Dr. Matilde Jimenez (CORPOSALUD, Venezuela) (Indicators and Epidemic Surveys, Epidemic Surveillance)
10.45 - 11.00 am........ Coffee Break
11.00 - 01.30 pm......... Economics Impact of the Hemoparasites and their Vectors.
                                    Socials Impact. Immuno - and Chimoprophylaxis.
                                    Bases for the Chemotherapy on Protozoa.
                                    Basic Considerations for the Development of Drugs and Vaccines
                                    against Protozoan Parasites and Their Vectors.
                                    Developed Vaccines. Integrated Control.

Invited Professors:

Dr. Alberto M. R. Dávila (DBBM, FIOCRUZ, Brazil) (T. vivax)
Dr. Servio Urdaneta (FC-UCV, Venezuela) (T. cruzi)
Dr. Manuel Toro Benitez (IIV-FONAIAP, Venezuela) (Anaplasma spp.)
Dr. Mercedes Oliveira (FCV-UCV, Venezuela) (Babesia spp.)
Dr. Francisco Garcia (FCV-UCV, Venezuela) (Ehrlichia spp.)
Dr. Morales (Venezuela) (Developed Veccine against Anaplasma spp.)

01.30 - 02.30 pm........ LUNCH

02.30 - 07.30 pm....... PRACTICES IN LABORATORY V.
PCR (Continuation)
Strategic Experimentation and Statistical Validation for Programs in Microcomputers.
Mathematical Models in Microcomputers for the Study of Hemoparasites.
Models of Studies for Evaluation Economics Impact and Relationship Cost-benefits of the Control of Hemoparasitosis.
Models of Satelital and Telematic Systems of Hemoparasitosis and their Vectors.
Invited professors:
Dr. Margarita Cobo (FA-UCV, Venezuela) (Strategic Experimentation and Statistical Validation).
Dr. Alberto M. R. Dávila (DBBM, FIOCRUZ, Brazil) (Handling of Databases Via Internet).
Dr. Rita Tamasaukas (URG, Venezuela) (Models for Economic Evaluation).
Prof. Omar Colmenares (URG, Venezuela) (Mathematical Models in PC´s for the Study of Hemoparasites, Simulation of Systems).
Dr. David Rogers (Oxford, UK) (Satelital and Telematic Models for Study of Hemoparasites and their Vectors).
07.30 - 08.00 pm.........Clossure and Certificates

08.00 - 10.00 pm.........Short Drink


Saturday 23-10-99:

07.00 am - 05.00 pm.......... Day of Field in a Cattle Farm: Llanera Party (Zaraza, Guárico).

Further information can be obtained by sending a message using this on-line form

(October 13-15 1999)